By Matthijs Bogaards, Sebastian Elischer
The detailed factor revisits Levitsky and Way’s seminal learn on aggressive Authoritarianism (2010). The contributions by means of North American, ecu, and African students deepen our figuring out of the emergence, trajectories, and results of hybrid regimes around the African continent.
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Extra info for Democratization and Competitive Authoritarianism in Africa
The study of these two cases revealed some insight into the classi¿cation of full authoritarian regimes under this model. Tanzania held its ¿rst multiparty elections at the tail end of the analysis period (October 28, 1995). Despite the of¿cial legalization of pluralism, the 1995 elections were so deeply Àawed that observers determined that the of¿cially announced results of the contest did not reÀect the choice of voters at the polls (Reeves and Klein 1995; US Department of State 1996). In Cameroon, the repression of political and civil groups in the lead-up to the 1992 legislative and presidential elections16 was severe.
20 Mozambique, Mali 21 Benin, Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville, Mali, Niger, Madagascar. 13 Coding competitive authoritarianism 35 bodies and the elimination or stern restriction of hyper-presidential powers. The last (or “almost last”) elections were authoritarian holdouts that in most cases terminated sometime in the following decade. In some cases, such as Malawi, this effect was so dramatic that Freedom House ratings shifted from “Not Free” to “Free” in the course of a single year (1993–1994). This issue compounds the timing problem described above and creates a highly unstable baseline period from which to judge the persistence of an uneven playing ¿eld.
Bakery, Tessy and Susan L. Palmer. 1997. Legislative elections in Cameroon: IFES International Mission report. Washington, DC: IFES. International Crisis Group (ICG). 2010. Cameroon: fragile state? Africa Report 160. Brussels: International Crisis Group. Kingue, Edward. 2012. Cameroun—1990–1992: Comment la démocratie est con¿squée au Cameroun. html. 2013. National Democratic Institute (NDI). 1992. Interim report: International Delegation to the Presidential elections in Cameroon. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.
Democratization and Competitive Authoritarianism in Africa by Matthijs Bogaards, Sebastian Elischer