By L. Tondl (auth.), Friedrich Rapp (eds.)
The hugely subtle options of recent engineering are as a rule conceived of in functional phrases. similar to the instrumental functionality of expertise, they're designed to direct the forces of nature in keeping with human reasons. but, once the area of mere talents is handed, the meant valuable effects can simply be completed via deliberate and preconceived motion strategies concerning the intentionally thought of program of good designed instruments and units. this can be to assert that during all complicated situations theoretical reasoning turns into an imperative ability to complete the pragmatic technological goals. for this reason the abstracting from the particular concrete functionality of expertise opens tips on how to focus recognition at the basic conceptual framework concerned. If this method is followed the suitable wisdom and the methods utilized sincerely convey a common sense in their personal. This perspective results in a methodological or even an epistemological research of the theoretical constitution and the explicit equipment of strategy attribute of contemporary expertise. Investigations of this sort, that may be defined as belonging to an ana lytical philosophy of know-how, shape the subject of this anthology. the kind of learn in query here's heavily corresponding to that of the philosophy of technology. however it is an fabulous indisputable fact that the widely accredited and thoroughly investigated philosophy of technological know-how has no longer but chanced on its counterpart in a longtime philosophy of technology.
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Extra info for Contributions to a Philosophy of Technology: Studies in the Structure of Thinking in the Technological Sciences
Occasionally such prognoses made with either ordinary knowledge or specialized but non-scientific knowledge are more successful than predictions made with full-fledged but false or rough theories; in many fields, however, the frequency of hits is not better than the one obtained by flipping a coin. The point, though, is that expert forecast using no scientific theory is not a scientific activityjust by definition of 'scientific prediction'. TECHNOLOGY AS APPLIED SCIENCE 37 Yet it would be wrong to think that experts make no use of specialized knowledge whenever they do not employ scientific theories; they always judge on the basis of some such knowledge.
Since then, intellectual curiosity has been the source of most, and certainly of all important, scientific problems; technology has often followed in the wake of pure research, with a decreasing time lag between the two. This is not to debase applied science but to recall how rich its conceptual background is. In applied science a theory is not only the summit of a research cycle and a guide to further research; it is also the basis TECHNOLOGY AS APPLIED SCIENCE 21 of a system of rules prescribing the course of optimal practical action.
Technological forecast should be maximally reliable. This condition excludes from technological practice - not, however, from technological research - insufficiently tested theories. In other words, technology will ultimately prefer the old theory that has rendered distinguished service in a limited domain and with a known inaccuracy to the bold new theory that promises unheard of forecasts but is probably more complex and therefore partly less well tested. It would be irresponsible for an expert to apply a new idea in practice without having tested it under controlled conditions.
Contributions to a Philosophy of Technology: Studies in the Structure of Thinking in the Technological Sciences by L. Tondl (auth.), Friedrich Rapp (eds.)