By Aristotle, Jonathan Barnes
Unique ebook 1984.
The Oxford Translation of Aristotle was once initially released in 12 volumes among 1912 and 1954. it truly is universally well-known because the commonplace English model of Aristotle. This revised version comprises the substance of the unique Translation, somewhat emended in gentle of contemporary scholarship; 3 of the unique models were changed by way of new translations; and a brand new and enlarged number of Fragments has been extra. the purpose of the interpretation is still an identical: to make the surviving works of Aristotle conveniently available to English talking readers.
note: with the Princeton unmarried quantity PDF being an aesthetically unpleasing conversion, this is often the Princeton prime quality test, and much more straightforward a learn for it's real-book aesthetic
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Extra resources for Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 1: The Revised Oxford Translation (Bollingen Series)
Similarly with the others, 'necessary' and 'impossible'. For as in the previous examples 'to be' and 'not to be' are additions, while the actual things that are subjects are white and man, so here 'to be' serves as subject, while 'to be possible' and 'to be admissible' are additions-these determining the possible and not possible in the case of 'to be', just as in the previous cases 'to be' and 'not to be' determine the true. The negation of 'possible not to be' is 'not possible not to be'. This is why 'possible to be' and 'possible not to be' may be thought actually to follow from one another.
For if Socrates exists one will be true and one false, but if he does not both will be false; neither 'Socrates is sick' nor 'Socrates is well' will be true if Socrates himself does not exist at all. As for possession and privation, if he does not exist at all neither is true, while not always one or the other is true if he does. For 'Socrates has sight' is opposed to 'Socrates is blind' as possession to privation; and if he exists it is not necessary for one or the other to be true or false (since until the time when it is natural for him to have it both are false), while if Socrates does not exist at all then again both are false, both 'he has sight' and 'he is blind'.
So it must sometimes be of a universal that one states that something holds or does not, sometimes of a particular. Now if one states universally of a universal that something holds or does not, there will be contrary statements (examples of what 1 mean by 'stating universally of a universal' are: every man is white-no man is white). But when one states something of a universal but not universally, the statements are not contrary (though what is being revealed may be contrary). Examples of what 1 mean by 'stating of a universal not universally' are: a man is white-a man is not white; man is a universal but it is not used universally in the statement (for 'every' does not signify the universal but that it is taken universally).
Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 1: The Revised Oxford Translation (Bollingen Series) by Aristotle, Jonathan Barnes