By James T. Patterson
Many of us have been elated while perfect court docket leader Justice Earl Warren introduced Brown v. Board of schooling of Topeka in could 1954, the ruling that struck down state-sponsored racial segregation in America's public colleges. Thurgood Marshall, leader lawyer for the black households that introduced the litigation, exclaimed later, ''I used to be so satisfied, i used to be numb.'' The novelist Ralph Ellison wrote, ''another conflict of the Civil struggle has been gained. the remaining is as much as us and i am very pleased. What a superb international of chances are spread out for the children!'' the following, in a concise, compelling narrative, Bancroft Prize-winning historian James T. Patterson takes readers throughout the dramatic case and its fifty-year aftermath. a variety of characters animates the tale, from the little-known African-Americans who dared to problem Jim Crow with complaints (at nice own cost); to Thurgood Marshall, who later turned a Justice himself; to Earl Warren, who shepherded a fractured court docket to a unanimous choice. Others comprise segregationist politicians like Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas; Presidents Eisenhower, Johnson, and Nixon; and debatable ideally suited courtroom justices similar to William Rehnquist and Clarence Thomas. so much american citizens nonetheless see Brown as a triumph--but used to be it? Patterson shrewdly explores the provocative questions that also swirl round the case. may perhaps the Court--or President Eisenhower--have performed extra to make sure compliance with Brown? Did the choice spark off the fashionable civil rights stream? How helpful are court-ordered busing and affirmative motion opposed to racial segregation? To what quantity has racial blending affected the educational success of black kids? the place certainly can we pass from the following to gain the expectancies of Marshall, Ellison, and others in 1954?
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Extra resources for Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy
Whatever the truth, the NAACP no longer had a plaintiff and had to drop its efforts. This was a sad ending to several years of expensive litigation. It was also testimony to the formidable difﬁculties that stood in the way of legal strategies against Jim Crow. 37 The ﬁrst backed the efforts of Heman Sweatt, a Houston mail carrier who had been rejected on racial grounds in 1946 when he sought admission to the state’s all-white law school. Instead, the state set up a poorly supported ‘‘law school’’ for blacks in a basement.
It also deprived black parents of a basic right: to send their children to neighborhood schools, including schools that were predominantly white, if they so wished. Critics of Jim Crow further stressed that whites had erected a segregated and discriminatory system with the deliberate intent not only of preventing interracial contact but also of keeping black people in servile positions. ’’26 Schools for black people were especially bad—indeed primitive—in many rural regions. Sunﬂower County, Mississippi, a cotton plantation region (where Senator Eastland owned thousands of acres), had no high school for blacks.
Would it make sense to mix Black Angus cattle with . . ’’14 The extremes to which such thinking had moved shook the Supreme Court in 1950, when it considered the case of Elmer Henderson, a black 6 • Brown v. Board of Education man who had brought suit in 1943 against segregated facilities in the Southern Railway’s dining cars. At that time it was common practice in the South to draw a curtain across the dining car near the kitchen and set up a table behind it. Blacks who wished to eat would be served behind the curtain.
Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy by James T. Patterson