By Geoff Layton
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Additional resources for Access to History. From Second Reich to Third Reich Germany 1918-45 for Edexcel
36 | From Second Reich to Third Reich: Germany 1918–45 The extreme right in theory In contrast to Marxist socialism, the extreme right did not really have an alternative organised ideology. It was simply drawn together by a growing belief in the following: Anti-Marxism Opposition to the ideology of Karl Marx. Worse still, these ‘November criminals’ had been prepared to overthrow the monarchy and establish a republic. Then, to add insult to injury, they had accepted the ‘shameful peace’ of Versailles.
The authorities systematically repressed the rebels with considerable brutality. In the end, the extreme left was just not powerful enough to lead a revolution against the Weimar Republic. 3: Major communist uprisings 1919–23 Date Place Action Response January 1919 Berlin Spartacist uprising to seize power March 1919 Bavaria March 1920 Ruhr March 1921 Merseburg and Halle Summer 1923 Saxony Creation of soviet republic Formation of the Ruhr Army by 50,000 workers to oppose the Kapp putsch (pages 39–41) ‘March Operation’.
32 | From Second Reich to Third Reich: Germany 1918–45 In the end, the Treaty of Versailles was a compromise. It was not based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points as most Germans thought it would be, but equally it was not nearly so severe as certain sections of Allied opinion had demanded. It should be borne in mind that: The signiﬁcance of the Treaty of Versailles The historical signiﬁcance of the Treaty of Versailles goes well beyond the debate over its fairness. It raises the important issue of its impact upon the Weimar Republic and whether it acted as a serious handicap to the establishment of long-term political stability in Germany.
Access to History. From Second Reich to Third Reich Germany 1918-45 for Edexcel by Geoff Layton